Precious metal refining
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Precious Metal Refining is the art of refining the precious metals gold, silver and the platinum group metals, platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium. In rare cases it also involves osmium and rutenium but those metals are especially dangerous to refine and need special equipment.
Since the precious metals are so resistant against oxidation it was one of the first metals encountered by humans and their rarity combined with the status it gives the owner have given them a high value. Thanks to the resistance to corrosion a lot of the gold used today is reused from older gold objects but before it can be reused it has to be purified, or refined as we call it.
Several of the precious metals are possible for the hobby refiner to refine with simple equipment and reach a high purity even in small lots. This is where refining becomes a craft, to be able to select the best method to treat the initial material and to remove as much of the contaminants as possible, to know what to do when faced with an unexpected reaction.
No one knows when the first refiner started working, it's lost in history, but as time went on more and more tools were developed for the refiner. Today the modern refiner have a large set of tools for recovery and refining. This wiki is trying to collect and show as many of these tools as possible.
Precious metal refining almost always demands strong acids for refining so care must be taken to keep safe.