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Cadmium is a troublesome metal for refiners. It is poisonous and creates toxic fumes when scrap containing cadmium is melted. Inhaling cadmium fumes could give metal fume fever.
Cadmium is easily dissolved in most acids.
- hydrochloric acid gives cadmium chloride (CdCl2)
- sulfuric acid gives cadmium sulfate (CdSO4)
- nitric acid gives cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2)
Cadmium in the waste stream
Cadmium in waste water can be precipitated as hydroxide, carbonate, phosphate or sulfide.
The EPA Limits for cadmium both in water and solid waste is 1ppm (mg/l)